Day 2 :
- Track 2: Phytochemistry | Track 3:Natural Products | Track 4: Herbal Drugs and Formulations | Track 5:Drugs from Natural Sources| Track 6:Toxicology Studies of Plant Products
Soho Flordis International, Australia
Dilip Ghosh has received his PhD in Biomedical Science from University of Calcutta, India. Previously, he held positions in Organon (India) Ltd.; HortResearch, New Zealand; USDA-ARS, HNRCA at Tufts University, Boston; The Smart Foods Centre, & Neptune Bio-Innovation Pty. Ltd., Australia. He is an international speaker, facilitator and author. He is a fellow of American College of Nutrition, professional member of AIFST, and also he is the Editorial Board Member of several journals. He has published more than 70 papers in peer reviewed journals, numerous articles in food and nutrition magazines and 4 books under CRC Press, USA.
The use natural products and plant based dietary supplements has potential to keep the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in check. According to a recent survey, over 42 per cent of adults in the United States reported using one or more forms of alternative medicines or dietary supplements Obesity and the metabolic syndrome continue to plague the world at an alarming rate. In recent years it has been reported that obesity and its metabolic complications will cause both substantial socio-economic and physical burden on society. Furthermore, if untreated diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and others more severe conditions will increase. Because weight perturbations are so prevalent and harmful, many different pro-pharmacological approaches have been developed to treat the overweight state and obesity. The use of pharmacological drugs has become a popular means to overcome excess weight. While these drugs generally are effective, severe adverse toxicities may limit their overall usefulness. A nutritional based intervention is being hailed as an inexpensive alternative to the aid weight loss, and weight management.
This presentation will cover:
- Market & product trends
- Marketing & branding hype?
- Consumer’s attitude, and how it pulling new product developments
- Recognize the key growth areas in the functional food and beverage markets and how to capitalise most effectively in weight management
- Evidence-based dietary supplements and nutraceutical
- Regulatory threats
- Moving forward obesity research
Health Polytechnic Manado, Indonesia
Yos Banne was born in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia on November 3rd, 1974. She completed bachelor degree on Pharmacy Dept. Hasanuddin University and a master degree on Faculty of Pharmacy at Gadjah Mada University in 2012. She is lecturer in Pharmacy Department, Health Polytechnic Manado since 2005 and do research in the fields of pharmaceuticals, especially of traditional medicine and medicinal dosage formulations. Several studies have been published in last 5 years either through journals or by oral / poster at the national and international seminar, including the formulation of nano-curcumin with chitosan as carrier, the use of coconut flour as a disintegrant in tablet formulation and preparation of medicines and cosmetics formulation from natural materials and examine its pharmacological effects.
Soursop plant can be used as a traditional medicine. The leaves empirically used to reduce fever due to its content of flavonoids. This study aimed to examine the antipyretic effect of soursop leaves extract (Annona muricata L.) on rats (Rattus norvegicus). This was an experimental research with pretest and posttest design with a control group. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration method using ethanol to produced a viscous extract. White rats were divided into 3 groups, each group consists of 5 rats. The body temperature of rats was measured as the initial temperature (t0). Rats then induced with 10% peptone to increase body temperature and then measured (tn). Group I was treated with soursop leaves extract, the second group was given paracetamol suspension as the positive control and the third group was given Na CMC as the negative control. The body temperature of rats measured at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 (t1, t2, t3, and t4). Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA tests with a significance level of 0.05. The result showed a significant value 0.000<0.05, so it can be concluded that the soursop leaves extract (Annona muricata L.) has the antipyretic effect on rats (Rattus norvegicus). Further studies need to explore such a study of the side effect and toxic effect of the soursop leaves.
Health Polytechnic Manado, Indonesia
Selfie Petronela Joice Ulaen, was born on 01 Sptember 1973 in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Completing secondary education at the School of Pharmacy Manado 1992, Graduate Program in Manado State University science degree in Educational Administration and Teaching Certificate IV in 2001, and the Indonesian Christian University in Tomohon in the field of Pharmacy in 2009. Master's Degree Programme in the field of Public Health at the University Samratulangi Manado 2004.
Member of the Senate Health Polytechnic Manado in 2004 till now, Head of Department/Prodi Pharmacy Health Polytechnic Manado in 2010 until now.
In February 2015, she attended an international seminar materials Pharmaceutical Products nature with a poster presentation at Makassar South Sulawesi Indonesia. In March 2016, she attended an international seminar Pharmacy, with poster presentation at the Central Sulawesi Indonesia. In November 2016, she attended an International Seminar Pharmacy, with a poster presentation in Bandung, West Java Indonesia.
Papaya is known as a multipurpose plant for almost all the plants useful to humans, one of which is the papaya seeds are used as medicine roundworms, indigestion, diarrhea, skin diseases, male contraception, and raw materials into the wind. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and the effect of different concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5% ethanol extract of papaya seeds in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli.
The study was a laboratory experiment with post-test design with control group. The research sample using black papaya seeds from the village Tompaso II District Tompaso Minahasa North Sulawesi Province. The ethanol extract of papaya seeds obtained from the maceration of 50 grams of dried papaya seeds powder using ethanol 70%, then made a test solution of each concentration of 1%, 3% and 5%. Test of inhibition is done by using a paper disc soaked at each concentration, and then placed on a nutrient agar which had been inoculated with the bacterium Escherichia coli, and then incubated in an incubator at a temperature of 37⁰C for 1 x 24 hours, 2 x 24 hours and 3 x 24 h and the diameter of clear zone formed was measured using a scale ruler mm. The data were analyzed descriptively continued with One Way Anova.
The results showed difference in the effectiveness and influence of the concentration of 1%, 3% and 5% ethanol extract of papaya seeds in inhibiting the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli.
Al-Ahliyyah Amman University, Jordan
Dr. Nedhal Al Douri graduated from Baghdad University, faculty of pharmacy and then got PhD in phytochemistry from faculty of pharmacy Nottingham University / U.K. , Worked in college of pharmacy/ Baghdad university as academic staff. In 2000 got diploma in clinical pharmacy from New Zealand and worked in school of pharmacy, Auckland university, NewZealand. Now working in school of pharmacy, Amman Alahliyah university, Jordan. She published about 25 research papers up to date.
The biogenetic conversion between the antimicrobial phytoalexins in the broad bean plant cotyledons, wyerone (I), 11-12- dihydrowyerone ( II) ,and wyerone epoxide (III) with their antimicrobial activity has been investigated
Labeled wyerone and dihydrowyerone were obtained by feeding sodium (2- 14C) acetate to abiotically CuCl2- induced Vicia faba cotyledons, and separation by HPLC.
The results in this study indicated that wyerone epoxide was derived from wyerone, and dihydrowyerone transformed into wyerone epoxide quite efficiently, but the epoxidation of wyerone to wyerone epoxide appeared to be more important. It is possible that a metabolic grid existed for these compounds in V. faba.
⇒Wyerone ⇒Wyerone epoxide⇒Dihydrowyerone⇒Wyerone epoxide
An Antibacterial activity
Antibacterial activity of the separated phytoalexins from cotyledons of Vicia faba was screened against human pathogens ( Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia), plant pathogens ( Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pseudomonas syringae, Rhodococcus fascians) and a saprophyte ( Bacillus megaterium) covering Gram positive and gram negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. The three phytoalexins showed good antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria while no antimicrobial activity against Gram negative bacteria was exhibited.
The origin of wyerone biosynthesis in Vicia faba was studied previously (Al-Douri,et al., 1986) and the conversion of wyerone to wyeron acid has been demonstrated earlier ( Al-Douri, 2014).In the present study the conversion of wyerone into wyerone epoxide using labeled compounds and the potential rule of these compounds in the biogenetic relationship as well their potential antibacterial activity has been established.
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Zerihun is working as a Senior Clinical Pharmacist at Addis Ababa University, college of Health Science, Black lion specialized Teaching Hospital In this teaching Hospital he serving as Drug Supply Management coordinator, The Head of special Pharmacy of the hospital, the secretary of DTC (Drug therapeutic Committee) and other committee works. In addition to these Mentoring under graduate pharmacy students who are coming to the hospital for clinical attachment both at the ward and dispensary area .He is also participating in some of Clinical research which is under go in the Hospital beside the routine work.
Background & objectives: Several plant products have been tested and found to possess antileishmanial activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis on the promastigot stage of Leishmania aethiopica comparing to standard drugs and also tried to screen its phytochemical constitute.
Methods: Phytochemical screening was done using the method mentioned by Evan and Trease on methanolic extract exudates of Aloe otallensis leaf. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against Leishmania Aethiopica which is found from the black lion hospital parasitology unit. The result was compared to standard drug of Sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin.
Result: The extract has a good antileishmaniacidal activity with an IC50 of 0.041 μg/ml on L. aethiopica (LDC/134). The experimental data shows that relatively it has better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses was done by pad graph prison version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of aloe otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin.
Conclusion: The methanol extract of exudate of Aloe otallensis has a good anti leishmanisis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin presnt in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent present in much concentration and to know which one have highest role.
VIT University, India
Dr. John Thomas completed his Ph.D in 2011 from Thruvalluvar University, Vellore Tamil Nadu, India. He was awarded the Young Scientist Award by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India in the year 2013. He is currently working as an Assistant Prof in Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore. He has published more than 25 papers in peer reviewed international journals. He has also 2 patents to his credit and two book chapters
Vibrio species are the most prevalent pathogens in the aquatic ecosystem. It causes huge mortality. V. anguillarum and V. vulnificus exhibit extensive virulence in marisne vertebrates or invertebrates. Vibrios remain prominently opportunistic but none the less they are largely primary and secondary pathogenic invaders of shrimps present in farms across the globe. This study aims at identifying the pathogenicity of V. angullarium species in n Macrobrachium rosenbergii and developing an effective treatment against the infection. The pathogenecity of M. rosenbergii to V. anguillarum was confirmed by intramuscular injection. The clinical symptoms such as lethargy, redish and green colouration on the body surface were observed. The highest concentration of V.angularium caused 100% mortality within 98 hrs of post inoculation when injected intramuscularly. However the lower concentrations of V. angularium caused 45% and 40% mortality, after 120 and 96 h of post injection respectively. The LD50 value of V. angularium for intramuscular route was found to be 2.4 × 10-4 at 120 hrs of post injection. The present study revealed that 25µl of ethanolic extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum was effective in treating the infection. This can be incorporated in to the feed and used for for treating the infection as an alternative to antibiotics. Resistance to the antimicrobial agents used in aquaculture has increased in many countries in recent years. Medicinal plants are potential and promising sources of pharmaceutical agents against pathogens in aquaculture.
IEC Group of Institutions, India
Prof. Bhanu P. S. Sagar had completed his Ph.D at the age of 29 years from Jamia Hamdard, Postdoc from National Institute of Immunology and D.Sc. in Alternative Medicine. Presently, Director of Pharmacy College at IEC-GI & Former Vice-Chancellor of IEC University. Published 47 papers and presented 30 papers. Presented two papers in “AAPS 2006 National Biotechnology Conference” in Boston, USA. Evaluator for various International Journals and also selected for “Marquis Who’s Who in Asia” and “Marquis Who’s Who in World”. Received many awards and prime areas of research include Plant Tissue Culture, Phytochemical & Pharmacological investigations of natural products.
Xanthium strumarium L. is poisonous to mammals due its toxic principle which is a diterpenoid glycoside i.e. atractyloside found in the roots and seeds. It was thought worthwhile to carry out the hepatotoxic assessments and safety and toxicity evaluations of oral administration of atractyloside and methanolic extracts of X.strumarium L. in albino wistar rats. So, present investigation was undertaken with following objectives:
- To develop standardized protocols for Extraction, isolation, purification, characterization and quantitative estimation of Atractyloside.
- Hepatotoxic assessments of oral administration of atractyloside in albino wistar rats.
- To study the safety and toxicity evaluation of methanolic extract in albino wistar rats.
Xanthium strumarium Linn. root and seeds were found to contain alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, atractyloside, phenolics, steroids, terpenoids, and resin etc. In the present investigation attempt was made to separate the atractyloside by using instant preparative thin layer chromatography (IPTLC) technique. Purified atractyloside was chemically characterized by IR, Mass and NMR spectral analysis. Atractyloside concentrations were found to be 2.9 and 4.3 mg/ml in plant root and seeds respectively using HPLC techniques. During hepatotoxic assessment, atractyloside produced severe hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats. Observations of the sub-acute and acute toxicity studies had indicated that methanolic extract of X. strumarium had shown a narrow safety margin in animals. On the basis of sub-acute and acute toxicity evaluation studies, it was established that both atractyloside and methanolic extract of X. strumarium L. possess a narrow safety margin in rats used in in-vivo experimental and preclinical pharmacological studies.
Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi India
Dr Shahid-ul-Islam completed his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 2016 from Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University) New Delhi, India. He is currently working as a DST SERB- National Postdoc Fellow at the Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India. His research is focused on Natural Products, Green chemistry, Polymer nanocomposites and Antimicrobial textiles. He has several academic publications, review articles and book chapters in various journals of international repute to his credit. Currently he is on the editorial board of two international journals and a regular referee of many top ranked journals.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of annatto, teak and flame of the forest natural dyes on color, fastness, and antimicrobial property of protein based textile substrate. The color strength (K/S) of wool samples at various concentrations of dyes were analysed using a Reflective Spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity of natural dyes before and after application on wool was tested against common human pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, by using micro-broth dilution method, disc diffusion assay and growth curve studies. The structural morphology of natural protein fibre (wool) was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Annatto and teak natural dyes proved very effective in inhibiting the microbial growth in solution phase and after application on wool and resulted in a broad beautiful spectrum of colors with exceptional fastness properties. The results encourage the search and exploitation of new plant species as source of dyes to replace toxic synthetic antimicrobial agents currently used in textile industry.
Maharshi Dayanand University, India
Dr. Chanchal Garg has completed her Ph.D from Jamia hamdard, New Delhi and is currently pursuing her postdoctoral studies from Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak. She has also worked as woman scientist on a research project titled “Standardization and Evaluation of anti-obesity Herbal Drugs” as principal investigator sanctioned under women scientist scheme (WOS-A) DST, GOI, New Delhi. She has many international and national publications to her credit. Her one of the publication is published in a highly reputed journal having an impact factor of 7.9. She also has a patent and is the author of two books and book chapters. Also she has presented many papers in both national and international conferences.
Photoaging is a process which depends especially on the extent of sun exposure and the quantity of melanin in the skin. The basic mechanism involved in skin aging is the oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skin, being rich in lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, DNA etc is highly prone to the adverse effects of ROS caused by oxidative stress. It is an established fact that the epidermis of the skin possess an extremely efficient natural antioxidant defence mechanisms supported by various types of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidases, catalases and glutathione. But the protective impact exerted by them is limited due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species, leading to skin aging. Antioxidant potential of large number of phytoconstituents obtained from plant extracts reduces the harmful effects of oxidative stress and helps in the prevention of the clinical signs of skin aging. Topical application of antioxidant substances, such as tocopherol, ascorbic acid, coenzyme Q10, plant extracts with phenolics as well as different combinations of these compounds, helps in maintaining the skin antioxidant reservoir, thus increasing the antioxidant skin defence thereby reducing the harmful effects of free radicals and oxidative stress. For example, tetrahydro curcuminoids derived from curcuminoids present in roots of Curcuma longa is capable of preventing free radical formation and also neutralising the existing free radicals, anthocyanins present in Acai palm significantly decreases the UVB induced DNA damage and free radical species in human keratinocytes. Similarly, polyphenols derived from green tea effectively destroy the free radical and reverses the aging process. Thus, antioxidants with free radical scavenging activities possess great significance in the protection and therapeutics of age-related disease involving free radicals. Present work is based on protective role of natural compounds in the oxidative stress induced Photoaging and its future potential.
Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Saeed Samarghandian got Ph.D (NeuroPhysiology, Japan (Tokyo) 2002), and Post-doc (Molecular Medicine, Japan, Tokyo, 2005). He has his expertise in evaluation of Nutrition and diseases (Neurological diseases). He also focused on the involved mechanisms of diseases.
Using antioxidant diets may be a good strategy for the inhibition of oxidative stress connected to age-related disease. Saffron is a dried stigmas of with antioxidant properties. This investigation was done to study the effects of saffron administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in hippocampus of male aged rats. The rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron for 4 weeks. At the end of our investigation, the hippocampi of rats were removed. The homogenate was used for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxides (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH). There are recent patents also suggesting the use of saffron and its gradients for prevention of oxidative stress in aged tissues.The results showed that the aging was connected with a significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in MDA and nitric oxide levels in the hippocampus of aged rats. In addition, treatment of saffron was effective in reducing hippocampus MDA and NO levels and in increasing the antioxidant status. There is possibility that saffron extract acts as a hormetin by inducing mild oxidative damage which leads to the activation of antioxidative enzymes.
Conclusions:Therefore, saffron exerted considerable neuroprotective effect and proved efficacious in protecting rat hippocampus against age-related oxidative damage.
National Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Ethiopia
Currently, many peoples are dying because of unsafe drinking water and water related diseases in Ethiopia. Nearly 87% of those who die as a result of acute vomiting and diarrhea are women’s, children under the age of 5 and economically disadvantaged communities. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory research was to address drinking water quality problems through using seed powder extracts of Moringa oleifera, Aloe debrana, and Carica papaya that are cheap, easy to prepare and use as well as effective for drinking water purification than using the synthetic Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) that have health risks and costly to be afforded at family basis. In the laboratory study, water samples were treated with powder extracts produced from the Moringa oleifera, Aloe debrana, and Carica papaya seeds at concentrations of 25mg/l, 50mg/l, 75mg/l, 100mg/l and 125mg/l for all three plant types. Then highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water samples were analyzed for different physiochemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, alkalinity, most probable number (MPN) and SPC. The optimum dosages for Moringa oleifera seed powder extracts were found to be 100mg/l whereas 50 mg/l for Aloe debrana and 125 mg/l for Carica papaya seed powder extracts. Moringa oleifera seed powder extracts had the highest turbidity removal efficiency with a percentage turbidity removal of 91.8% followed by Aloe debrana powder extracts with a percentage turbidity removal of 85.7% and Carica papaya with a percentage turbidity removal of 80.6% at its optimal dosage of each powder extract types. Optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.8, with the optimum operating temperature of about 24°C. Efficient reduction (99.5%) of bacterial load was obtained by the application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera seed powder extracts at a dose of 100mg/l followed by Aloe debrana (90.0%) seed powder extracts at a dose of 50mg/l. The results of this study recommended Moringa oleifera seed powder extracts to treat highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated drinking water.
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam University, India
Dr. Sumeet Dwivedi, M.Pharm, Ph.D, FLSL currently working as Associate Professor and Head of the Department, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam University, Indore, MP, India. He has more than 8 year of experience, published more than 160 research/review papers and 6 books. His keen interest is in Natural drug standardization, development and biological screening.
Gastric irritation is very common problem with various stomach related disorders. The present research was undertaken to formulate floating calcium alginate beads of glycyrrhizin for targeting the gastric mucosa and prolonging their gastric residence time. The beads were prepared by suspending glycyrrhizin in calcium alginate solution. The bead was prepared using calcium alginate and glycyrrhizin (1:1) and was evaluated. The mean diameter, drug loading and entrapment efficiency was evaluated. Thus, the present investigation aimed in formulating stomach specific drug delivery useful in the treatment of gastric problems.
Women University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan
Ashfaq Ahmad Khan completed his Ph.D thesis in 2014 under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Ghiasuddin, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Besides this, He also worked at the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS) for six months at UK, under the supervision of Prof. Alexander Irvine Gray (Sandy lab) by winning the HEC Scholarship. He also worked for one year with Professor Mingkui Wang in CIBCAS China under TWAS--CAS. As a doctoral fellow at University of Peshawar, He focused on the development of skills and expertise used for the isolation, derivatization and spectral interpretation of secondary metabolites.
Plants are an essential part of human life since the civilization started. Medicinal plants are the boon of nature to cure a number of diseases of human beings. In many parts of the world medicinal plants are used against bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Evaluation of plants bearing efficiency in healing various diseases is growing in recent years. A large number of biologically active compounds of plants are found to possess antibacterial properties. Practitioners of Ayurveda and Unani system of medicine regularly employ a large number of Indian medicinal plants as antibiotic agents and over the last 40 years, intensive efforts have been made to discover clinically used herbal antibacterial and antifungal drugs.
The genus Thymus L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae, and consists of about 215 to 350 species, according to different literature data Thyme oil is among the world’s top 10 essential oils also used as a preservative for food. The Thymus species have aromatic and medicinal properties that have made it one of the most popular herbs among all medicinal plants.
The medicinal importance and bioactivity of Thymus serpyllum prompted us to carry out phytochemical investigations on this species.
- Young Researchers Forum
University of Newcastle, Australia
Thanh Van Ngo is doing his PhD in Food Science at the University of Newcastle (Australia). He is a lecturer and researcher at College of Forestry Biotechnology, Vietnam National University of Forestry. He has published about 10 papers in different journals.
The root and stem of Salacia chinensis L. have been traditionally used as herbal medicine for the treatment of various ailments; the leaf, however has not been investigated, and may contain high levels of phytochemicals. This study aimed to compare phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the root, stem and leaf of Salacia chinensis L. The results showed that the root of S. chinensis had the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and saponins (64.4 mg GAE/g DW, 106 mg CE/g DW, 43.5 mg CE/g DW and 799.9 mg EE/g DW, respectively), followed by the stem and leaf. In addition, results from the ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and CUPRAC antioxidant assays revealed that the root of S. chinensis had the highest antioxidant capacity (632.2, 577.1, 443.3 and 365.0 µM TE/g DW, respectively), again followed by the stem and leaf. HPLC analysis revealed that the root and stem had three major compounds, while the leaf had more major individual compounds in lower quantities in comparison with the root and stem. As the root contained high phytochemical and antioxidant properties, future studies are recommended to isolate and identify the major bioactive compounds from the root for further industrial utilization.
Victoria University, Australia
Kavitha Sreehari is finalizing her Ph.D. thesis under the guidance of Dr. John D Orbell and Dr. Andrew Smallridge, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne. Her research includes the search for anti-neurodegenerative drug leads that could pass through the blood brain barrier effectively and thus results therapeutic benefits to the patients. She has published two papers in peer reviewed Journals and this paper is her third article.
Most drugs for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are symptomatic and have little or no effect on disease progression. One area of research into such diseases suggests that certain metal ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ are enriched in Aβ deposits and such aggregates play a vital role in neuronal damage. It has been surmised that certain chelators that pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) may sequester such metals from Aβ accumulation and arrest neuronal damage. Thus traditional medicines that have been employed as “brain tonic” contain chelators which could pass through (BBB) and exert beneficial effects. One such traditional medicine that has been regarded and utilized as a “brain tonic” for centuries is the Indian traditional herbal medicine bacopa monnineri (BM). Some of the molecular components of this plant material (Ramasamy et al., 2015)were identified as being capable of passing through (BBB). These were assessed for their ability to complex copper, zinc or iron using modelling. One de-glycosylated moiety in particular was found to be a potential candidate that was able to pass through (BBB) and complex Cu2+, Zn2+/Fe2+. This molecule is a steroid that also resembles a molecule that has recently been found to dissolve protein aggregates that are associated with cataracts (Zhao et al., 2015)and this could represent an alternative mechanism for anti-plaque activity. This idea is being pursued via similarity studies. These computational studies have been complemented by experimental studies whereby evidence of Cu2+, Zn2+/Fe2+ chelation has been sought from chemical analyses of (BM) extracts.
SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, India
Dr Kopila Adhikari had completed her Bachelors in Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery in 2006. Previously she had worked as Medical Officer in a Nepal-German Joint Venture private hospital in Nepal. She is medical officer under Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal. At present she is doing her post graduate study in Dravyaguna (MD - Ayurveda pharmacology and medicinal plant) under full scholarship. She had participated and presented her paper in 4 international and 3 national seminars. She had published one article in an International Journal.
Musali is one of the commonly used herbs to enhance sexual health in male. It is considered to have rasayana, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, hepato-protective, anti-oxidant, anticancer and anti-diabetic activities. It is distributed from tropical to sub-tropical regions in India, Nepal, China, Malaysia, and Japan. It is a perennial herb with tuberous root system stock up to 15cm long; tubers are stout, short or elongate with copious fleshy root, leaves sessile or petiolate, flowers are bright yellow or white in color.
Musali contents saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, esters, mucilage and other chemical compounds. Among them different types of saponins like Curculigoside A & D, is considered to be responsible for aphrodisiac activity.
Changing life style is taking a toll on the status of male sexual health in the global population. Stress, obesity, unhealthy food habit, night stay are leading causes for the increasing rate of infertility, erectile dysfunction, subnormal desire and performance in sexual intercourse. Previous experimental and clinical studies on Musali have shown significant improvement in male sexual health including erectile dysfunction and loss of libido.
Conventional medicine has discovered few chemicals as aphrodisiac. But these agents are associated with many unwanted and serious adverse effects. Therefore, traditional medicines like Ayurveda and Chinese medicines can play a vital role in this with the development of nutraceutical product using the potent aphrodisiac herb like Musali.